La contribución del estrés oxidativo en los procesos de aprendizaje y memoria.

María Elena González Fraguela

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Resumen

La Enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) constituye la causa de discapacidad de mayor impacto social y económico en el mundo desarrollado, por tal motivo, existe un creciente interés en el estudio de estos procesos asociados a la edad avanzada. El siguiente trabajo dirige su atención a profundizar en los aspectos más recientes de la vinculación existente entre el metabolismo oxidativo y el deterioro cognitivo presente en los procesos neurodegenerativos. El daño oxidativo a los principales componentes celulares resulta irreversible y se acumula con el tiempo, estableciendo la base molecular de la fisiopatología del envejecimiento cerebral. Entre los elementos involucrados en la formación y conservación de la memoria incluyen la actividad de receptores, enzimas, factores de transcripción y canales iónicos que son sensibles a los cambios en el estado redox del medio intracelular y afectan los mecanismos de plasticidad sináptica que constituye el modelo celular que subyace en el aprendizaje y la memoria. Esta revisión aportara una mayor comprensión de los procesos moleculares vinculados con la pérdida de la homeostasis oxidante que conducen a la muerte celular y con ello a la disfunción cognitiva en el envejecimiento natural y las patologías del sistema nervioso asociadas a éste.

Palabras clave

Estrés Oxidativo, Glutatión, Aprendizaje, Memoria, Neurodegeneraciones.

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